In a time of austerity, the U.S. government’s reliance on the private sector for a range of services has declined for two consecutive years. Even so, real services contract spending in 2012 remains more than 80 percent above the level in 2000. The CSIS Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group brings eight years of experience to the task of understanding this industry in flux. This report examines contract factors, like competition, funding mechanism, and vehicle, while also looking at industrial base factors like vendor market share by size and top contractors by total services revenue. The study team then applies this analysis to individual government customers and service areas. The 2000–2012 iteration of the report also significantly updates the policy implications chapter. This section examines the controversial topics of contract size and multi-award contracts to determine what the data say about their ramifications.