Now in a fully updated edition that goes through the Trump administration and the election and formative period of the Biden administration, this compact and accessible introduction offers a historical perspective on the evolution of U.S. foreign policy from the founding of the country to the present. Joyce P. Kaufman provides students and general readers with a clear and concise understanding of key foreign-policy decisions and why they were made. She identifies the major themes that have guided foreign policy and the reasons that the United States pursued certain policies in the context of specific periods in the nation’s history. Kaufman focuses on the major actors involved in the making of foreign policy and the changing relationships among them. She also explains the major theoretical perspectives within international relations and contextualizes key foreign policy decisions as they fit these frameworks. This edition puts a particular focus on the creation of Cold War foreign policy, and why the end of the Cold War has continued to be such a challenge to the United States. Kaufman concludes with a look at the challenges the United States will continue to face, including existential threats such as climate change and disease, and how Americans can be prepared to address them.